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Block diagram

 

 

Abstract

 

 

 

 

 

.

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Abstract

Sudden fluctuation in supply is a very big problem in industries and domestic applications. It causes a major loss for industries, offices and homes. This project gives a low cost and powerful solution for this problem. This Circuit protects refrigerators ACs, Microwave ovens as well as other appliances from over and under voltage fluctuations. Operational amplifier IC LM324 is used here as a comparator. IC LM324 consists of four operational amplifiers, of which only two operational amplifiers are used in the circuit. The unregulated power supply is connected to the series combination of resistors and preset. The same supply is also connected to 6.8v zener diode through a resistor. The preset is adjusted such that for the normal supply of 180V to 240V, the voltage at non-inverting terminal of op-amp is less than 6.8V. The same unregulated supply is given to the second comparator through a 5.6V zener.

12V SPDT relay is used to control the Load. An NPN transistor is used to drive the relay. An LED is connected across the relay for visual indication of relay position. This project uses regulated 12V, 500mA power supply. 7812 three terminal voltage regulator is used for supply voltages and reference voltages for LM324 comparator circuit. Bridge type full wave rectifier is used to rectify the ac out put of secondary of 230/12V step down transformer.

Block diagram

Advantages:

  1. Highly sensitive
  2. Fit and Forget system
  3. Low cost and reliable circuit
  4. Complete elimination of manpower
  5. Can handle heavy loads up to 7A
  6. Auto switch OFF in abnormal conditions
  7. Auto switch ON in safe conditions

Applications:

  1. Industrial machinery
  2. House hold items like TV, refrigerator, AC
  3. Agriculture Motors
  4. Water pumps

 

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Abstract

Inverters become a necessary device for a common man. Especially, in summer, the power shortage is more. We can overcome from the difficulties caused by power shortage by using inverters. This project is designed for up to 45W load.

This project works on astable multivibrator principle. Two transistors are used to form an astable circuit. The astable is designed for 50 Hz square wave signal. The output of the astable multivibrator is amplified by Darlington pair amplifier.

This amplified output of astable multivibrator is fed to a step up transformer. 230V / 12–0–12 V transformer can be used in reverse, which is commonly available in the market.

These inverters play vital role especially in rural areas. A rechargeable 12V battery is used to store the energy during power availability. The back up time depends on the battery ampere – hour rating.

This project uses regulated 12V, 750mA power supply for charging the battery. 7812 three terminal voltage regulator is used for voltage regulation. Bridge type full wave rectifier is used to rectify the ac out put of secondary of 230/18V step down transformer.

Block diagram

 

 

Abstract

 

 

 

 

 

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