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Posts Tagged ‘block diagram’

Abstract

  • Title of the project                  :           Steeper motor control using AT89S52
  • Software                                 :           Embedded C, Keil, Proload
  • Microcontroller                       :           AT89S52
  • Power Supply                          :           +5V, 500mA Regulated Power Supply
  • Display                                    :           LED 5mm, 16 X 2 LCD
  • Crystal                                     :           11.0592MHz
  • Controls                                  :           Stop, CLK, Counter CLK

Stepper motor is found with finds lot applications in computer peripherals, business machines, process control, machine tools and robotics. Especially in robotics and process control like silicon processing, I.C.Bonding and Laser trimming applications, it is necessary to control the stepper motor from remote places. This project is to control the stepper motor using switches. This deals with the design and development of hardware and software for Stepper motor control system.

Three switches are used to control the direction of the stepper motor. When the corresponding switches are pressed the stepper motor turns in clockwise, anticlockwise and stops respectively.

16 X 2 Liquid Crystal display (LCD) is provided to display the status of the stepper motor. ULN driver is used to drive the stepper motor.

This project uses regulated 5V, 500mA power supply. 7805 three terminal voltage regulator is used for voltage regulation. Bridge type full wave rectifier is used to rectify the ac out put of secondary of 230/12V step down transformer.

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Now a days in many discotheques we find people dancing to the music which is common, trying for a difference we designed our project in such a way that the lights flicker according to the music. In this way, we can provide some more entertainment and attraction to the area where it is installed.

Some mains operated audio controlled light can be used in discotheques. The lamps glow in a running sequence as per the sound generated. When music is played, the lights start ‘running’ through the lamps. Ten AC lamps are connected to the circuit. Only one lamp glows at a time when there is no sound/music.

In this circuit a condenser mic is used which converts audio signals to electrical signals. These electrical signals from the microphone are fed to the transistor which amplifies the microphone signals and also provides clock pulses to the decade counter IC1 CD4017.A preset is provided to vary the signal level. As the decade counter has a total of ten counts, the pin corresponding to tenth count is connected to reset pin of IC1. One of the outputs of IC1 is fed to the clock pin of IC2 CD4017. The outputs of IC2 CD4017 drive transistors to provide triggering pulses to triacs.

The triac we are using is BT136, which is a 3-terminal device. In this triac, the first two pins are the terminal1 and terminal 2 and the third pin is the gate terminal. In this circuit, the triacs drive the AC lamps. In a triac when gate terminal is triggered then the triac turns ON which in turn powers up the load. Hence now we can see the lights running with the sound of music.

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The speech recognition system is a useful and easy to use programmable speech recognition circuit. Programmable, in the sense that user can train the words (or vocal utterances) he needs the circuit to recognize. This board allows the user to experiment with many facets of speech recognition technology. It has 8 bit data out which can be interfaced with any microcontroller for further development. Some of interfacing applications which can be made are controlling home appliances, robotics movements, Speech Assisted technologies, Speech to text translation, and many more.

Robotics has been of interest to mankind for over hundred years. However our perception of robots has been influenced by the media and Hollywood. The vast majority of robots do have several qualities in common. First of all, almost all robots have a movable body. Some only have motorized wheels, and others have dozens of movable segments, typically made of metal or plastic. Like the bones in your body, the individual segments are connected together with joints.

This robot is controlled by voice commands. This can be moved forward and reverse direction using geared motors of 60RPM. Also this robot can take sharp turnings towards left and right directions. This project uses AT89S52 MCU as its controller. A high sensitive induction type metal detector is designed using colpitts oscillator principle and fixed to this robot. Also a wireless camera with voice is interfaced to the kit.

This project uses 12V battery. A solar panel is connected to this. The battery gets charged in the day time and the stored energy can be used for robot operation.

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With the existing push in the direction of sustainable, clean sources of power, it is no surprise that solar power has become one of the most popular alternative energy sources. Free and available everywhere, the power of the sun can be employed to power everything like cel phones and MP3 player. The sun’s energy is usually harvested through solar panels that are made up of photovoltaic cells. These cells can convert the sun’s power into electricity that can be used for a number of purposes. For private use, a handheld solar hybrid charger can be employed to recharge little device for instance a MP3 player, a cell phone, or a camera.

A normal PN junction diode is used for unidirectional flow of charge current. The output of the solar panel depends on the intensity of the solar light. To regulate this voltage, LM317 is used. LM317 is an adjustable voltage regulator. The regulator circuit is designed to get a fixed voltage of 5V.

An alternative charger circuit is also provided to charge the mobile by house hold general purpose 230V in the absence of the sun light. This charge circuit uses regulated 5V, 750mA power supply. 7805 three terminal voltage regulator is used for voltage regulation. Bridge type full wave rectifier is used to rectify the ac output of secondary of 230/18V step down transformer.

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Security is primary concern everywhere and for every one. Every person wants his home, industry etc to be secured. This project describes a security alarm system that can monitor an industry and home. This is a simple and useful security system and easy to install. This fire / smoke detector is realized using readily available, low cost components. One of its many applications is in any offices and shops for security against fire. The detector will sense smoke caused by fire accident and switch on the water sprinkler to prevent major damage.

This system senses the smoke. The smoke detector comprises of an IR transmitter and an IR receiver. If smoke is presented between these two devices, the output of the sensor goes high and activates the sensor.

A relay is connected to the system and this relay is activated when the smoke is detected. This relay switches on the water sprinkler.

The circuit works off a 5V battery or 5V regulated power supply and uses smoke detector as its principal component. Initially, when the power is switched on, decade counter is reset by power-on-reset components. As a result, output of Decade counter goes high and the entire circuit is in idle state. LED indicates the power status. In the event of smoke, decade counter is clocked by the pulses from the piezo ceramic element connected to its clock pin. All the outputs of decade counter are fed to relay- driver switching transistor through diodes connected in OR mode. Immediately after clocking, any of the outputs of decade counter would go high and NPN transistor would conduct. As a result, SCR is fired through its gate. This, in turn, energizes relay. The relay contacts can be used to switch any water sprinkler device to prevent major damage caused by fire. The circuit can be reset by momentarily pressing switch.  Two Zener diodes at the clock input of IC1 are used for protection against high voltage input. In the case of repeated false triggering of decade counter, add a 100nF capacitor in parallel to the piezoceramic element.

Block diagram

Advantages:

  1. Highly sensitive
  2. Fit and Forget system
  3. Low cost and reliable circuit

Applications:

  1. Home / Office
  2. Banks
  3. Factories
  4. Store Rooms

 

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Controlling industrial / home appliances is a very interesting and useful project. This project is designed to control up to four electrical appliances. This project used popular RF encoder and decoder IC’s.

Four Switches are connected to the RF Encoder. This encoded data is transmitted through a RF transmitter module. In the receiver side, the RF receiver module receives the encoded data and decodes using an RF Decoder. This decoded output data is given to transistor drivers. Relays are driven using these transistor drivers. Up to 7A load can be connected to these loads.

In this project 433 MHz RF transmitter and receiver modules are used. These are ideal for remote control applications where low cost and longer range is required. The transmitter operates from a1.5-12V supply, making it ideal for battery-powered applications. The transmitter employs a SAW-stabilized oscillator, ensuring accurate frequency control for best range performance.  The manufacturing-friendly SIP style package and low-cost make the STT-433 suitable for high volume applications.

This project uses regulated 5V, 750mA power supply. 7805 three terminal voltage regulator is used for voltage regulation. Bridge type full wave rectifier is used to rectify the ac out put of secondary of 230/18V step down transformer.

Block diagram

Advantages:

  1. Highly sensitive
  2. Very low noise
  3. Low cost and reliable circuit
  4. Can transmit up to 10 meter
  5. Can handle heavy loads up to 7A
  6. System can be switched into manual mode whenever required

Applications:

  1. Home appliance control
  2. Hotel lights / fans control
  3. Shops and showrooms
  4. Industrial Applications
  5. Electronic Toys

 

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This project is an ultra-sensitive fire sensor that exploits the direct piezoelectric property of an ordinary piezo element to detect fire. The lead zirconate titanate crystals in the piezo element have the property to deform and generate an electric potential when heated, thus converting the piezo element into a heat sensor. The circuit described here is very sensitive. It gives a warning alarm if the room temperature increases more than 10°C. The entire circuit has two sections—the sensor and the power supply section.

The front part of the circuit has a sensitive signal amplifier. It gives a high output when temperature near the piezo element increases. In normal condition, the sensitive signal amplifier gives a low output and the remaining circuitry is in a standby state.

If heat near the piezo persists, after one minute, and the buzzer starts beeping. If heat continues, after four minutes, the relay will be energized. The solenoid pump connected to the N/O (normally opened) contact of the relay starts spraying the fire-ceasing foam or water to the possible sites of fire.

Power supply section comprises a 0-18V, 1A step-down transformer with a standard full-wave rectifier formed by D1 through D4 and filter capacitor C1. A regulator is used to get fixed positive 12V. An optional battery backup can be provided if the mains supply is cut-off due to short-circuit and fire. A 12V, 4.5Ah rechargeable battery can be used for backup to give sufficient current to the solenoid pump.

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Sudden fluctuation in supply is a very big problem in industries and domestic applications. It causes a major loss for industries, offices and homes. This project gives a low cost and powerful solution for this problem. This Circuit protects refrigerators ACs, Microwave ovens as well as other appliances from over and under voltage fluctuations. Operational amplifier IC LM324 is used here as a comparator. IC LM324 consists of four operational amplifiers, of which only two operational amplifiers are used in the circuit. The unregulated power supply is connected to the series combination of resistors and preset. The same supply is also connected to 6.8v zener diode through a resistor. The preset is adjusted such that for the normal supply of 180V to 240V, the voltage at non-inverting terminal of op-amp is less than 6.8V. The same unregulated supply is given to the second comparator through a 5.6V zener.

12V SPDT relay is used to control the Load. An NPN transistor is used to drive the relay. An LED is connected across the relay for visual indication of relay position. This project uses regulated 12V, 500mA power supply. 7812 three terminal voltage regulator is used for supply voltages and reference voltages for LM324 comparator circuit. Bridge type full wave rectifier is used to rectify the ac out put of secondary of 230/12V step down transformer.

Block diagram

Advantages:

  1. Highly sensitive
  2. Fit and Forget system
  3. Low cost and reliable circuit
  4. Complete elimination of manpower
  5. Can handle heavy loads up to 7A
  6. Auto switch OFF in abnormal conditions
  7. Auto switch ON in safe conditions

Applications:

  1. Industrial machinery
  2. House hold items like TV, refrigerator, AC
  3. Agriculture Motors
  4. Water pumps

 

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Inverters become a necessary device for a common man. Especially, in summer, the power shortage is more. We can overcome from the difficulties caused by power shortage by using inverters. This project is designed for up to 45W load.

This project works on astable multivibrator principle. Two transistors are used to form an astable circuit. The astable is designed for 50 Hz square wave signal. The output of the astable multivibrator is amplified by Darlington pair amplifier.

This amplified output of astable multivibrator is fed to a step up transformer. 230V / 12–0–12 V transformer can be used in reverse, which is commonly available in the market.

These inverters play vital role especially in rural areas. A rechargeable 12V battery is used to store the energy during power availability. The back up time depends on the battery ampere – hour rating.

This project uses regulated 12V, 750mA power supply for charging the battery. 7812 three terminal voltage regulator is used for voltage regulation. Bridge type full wave rectifier is used to rectify the ac out put of secondary of 230/18V step down transformer.

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This project is designed to monitor the LPG leakage or smoke and activate the siren and auto dialer using ARM based microcontroller. LPG Sensor is used to sense the leakage. A buzzer is provided to alert the user in abnormal condition.

The LPC2148 are based on a 16/32 bit ARM7TDMI-S™ CPU with real-time emulation and embedded trace support, together with 128/512 kilobytes (kB) of embedded high speed flash memory. A 128-bit wide memory interface and a unique accelerator architecture enable 32-bit code execution at maximum clock rate. For critical code size applications, the alternative 16-bit Thumb Mode reduces code by more than 30% with minimal performance penalty. With their compact 64 pin package, low power consumption, various 32-bit timers, 4- channel 10-bit ADC, USB PORT,PWM channels and 46 GPIO lines with up to 9 external interrupt pins these microcontrollers are particularly suitable for industrial control, medical systems, access control and point-of-sale. With a wide range of serial communications interfaces, they are also very well suited for communication gateways, protocol converters and embedded soft modems as well as many other general-purpose applications.

This project uses two power supplies, one is regulated 5V for modules and other one is 3.3V for microcontroller. 7805 three terminal voltage regulator is used for voltage regulation. Bridge type full wave rectifier is used to rectify the ac out put of secondary of 230/12V step down transformer.

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